PRACTICE AND RESEARCH UPDATES
A reference for school psychology doctoral programs
By Linda Caterino, Chieh Li, Annie Hansen, Susan G. Forman, Abigail Harris, and Gloria Miller
The Council of Directors of School Psychology Programs (CDSPP) Practicum Taskforce was formed in 2009 with the charge of reviewing the APA practicum competencies documents and other practicum definitions that have emerged recently (e.g., the revised document by ASPPB, 2009) from a school psychology perspective. We were asked to provide guidance to the field through CDSPP about how programs should respond to various reporting requirements in these documents, how they can be revised or adapted for use in school psychology, and also advise the CDSPP Executive Committee on how it can advocate for revisions that reflect legitimate areas of practice that are unique to the specialty of school psychology and/or that are not well represented in the document.
The members represented 11 training programs from 10 states, including Chieh Li, Chair (Massachusetts), Bill Strein, Co-Chair (Maryland), Linda C. Caterino (Arizona), Susan Forman (New Jersey), Annie Hansen (Minnesota), Abigail Harris (New York), Deb Kundert (New York), Gloria Miller (Colorado), Joy E. Fopiano (Connecticut), Alberto Gamarra (Florida), and Cheryl A. Offutt (Missouri). The taskforce prioritized the development of practicum competencies for school psychology. As the Practicum Competencies Outline (Hatcher & Lassiter, 2007) provides an excellent model and reflects the hard work of the taskforce of the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Board (ASPPB), the Association of Directors of Psychology Training Clinics (ADPTC) and the Council of Chairs of Training Councils (CCTC), the CDSPP Practicum Taskforce explored how it could be used in school psychology. Over the course of the 2009–2010 year, members of the taskforce reviewed the Outline line by line, adapted it, and added skills that are unique to school psychology. In addition, wording that was not inclusive of school psychology was modified, such as changing "patient" to "client," and adding "school" to "clinic" as a potential practicum site. Although there were different views on what competencies should be expected at what level (Novice, Intermediate, Advanced), the taskforce did not address this issue, as this was not an issue unique to school psychology.
The rationale for the changes made to the original Practicum Competencies Outline (Hatcher & Lassiter, 2007) was introduced in the presentation of the CDSPP Practicum Taskforce for 2010 CDSPP Mid-Winter meeting (It is on the new CDSPP website). A more thorough explanation will be provided in a review article (to be submitted to the APA journal of Training and Education of Professional Psychology) of the Practicum Competencies Outline (Hatcher & Lassiter, 2007) from a school psychology perspective. It should be noted that the skills listed under the competencies in this outline are very broad. It is designed to be inclusive of practica of both clinical and school settings. No practicum student should be expected to have all the skills. It is up to the training program to select which skills to emphasize.
The adapted Outline is put on the CDSPP website as a working document for comments from the entire CDSPP. Hopefully, with the endorsement of CDSPP at the 2011 mid-winter meeting, the adapted Outline will be recommended as a reference for trainers of doctoral school psychology programs. Members of the taskforce want to make clear that we are not advocating a "one size fits all" model but rather continuing in the development / refinement of a tool for programs to consider. CDSPP members are encouraged to review this working document carefully and send your comments and suggestions to the coordinators of this project Drs. Linda Caterino and Chieh Li. Thank you.
Practicum Competencies Outline
Description of Levels of Competence
Please see Hatcher & Lassiter (2007) for fuller discussion of the levels of competence described in this document.
Key Points Regarding Practicum Competencies Outline (Hatcher & Lassiter, 2007) Adapted by the CDSPP Practicum Taskforce:
1. Competencies are acquired at different rates. Some competencies, such as administrative or supervisory skills, may develop over time and not be fully evident until later in one's professional career. Other more basic competencies, such as timeliness, ability to utilize supervision, etc., may be expected and/or required to be substantially attained very early in training. These differences in the rate of development are reflected in the level of competence expected at the conclusion of practicum training.
2. Note that "competency" refers to a professional skill domain (e.g., assessment); "competence" or "level of competence" refers to the level of skill an individual has acquired (e.g., an intermediate level of competence in assessment); and "competent" is an active description of an individuals' current skill level (e.g., this psychologist is competent in neuropsychological assessment).
3. Individual and Cultural Differences. A core principle behind all competencies listed in this document is awareness of, respect for, and appropriate action related to individual and cultural difference (ICD). Issues of ICD are relevant to each of the competencies described, but take a particularly large role in some. In these instances, ICD is mentioned specifically.
4. One of the most widely used schemes for describing the development of competence is that of Dreyfus and Dreyfus (1986), who define five professional learning stages, from Novice, to Advanced Beginner, to Competent, to Proficient, and ending with Expert. According to this proposed progression, as the learner becomes increasingly familiar with content as well as the analytic and action tasks that characterize the field, performance becomes more integrated, flexible, efficient and skilled. Patterns and actions that initially require careful and effortful thought and supervision become internalized and increasingly automatic. By the time a person reaches expert levels she/he is also able to carefully analyze her/his own performance and appreciate the need for selfreflection and continued or lifelong learning.
5. The following three categories are utilized to define and describe the level of competence expected at the conclusion of core coursework and practicum. In some areas, substantial competence is expected, while in others, only beginning levels of understanding are expected. That is, graduating students, or any psychologist for that matter, may be expert in some areas and a novice in others.
A. Novice (N): Novices have limited knowledge and understanding of (a) how to analyze problems and of (b) intervention skills and the processes and techniques of implementing them. Novices do not yet recognize patterns, and do not differentiate well between important and unimportant details; they do not have filled-in cognitive maps of how, for example, a given client may move from where he/she is to a place of better functioning.
B. Intermediate (I): Psychology students at the intermediate level of competence have gained enough experience through practice, supervision and instruction to be able to recognize some important recurring domain features and to select appropriate strategies to address the issue at hand. Surface level analyses of the Novice stage are less prominent, but generalization of diagnostic and intervention skills to new situations and clients is limited, and support is needed to guide performance.
C. Advanced (A): At this level, the student has gained deeper, more integrated knowledge of the competency domain in question, including appropriate knowledge of scholarly/research literature as needed. The student is considerably more fluent in his/her ability to recognize important recurring domain features and to select appropriate strategies to address the issue at hand. In relation to clinical work, recognition of overall patterns, of a set of possible diagnoses and/or treatment processes and outcomes for a given case, are taking shape. Overall plans, based on the more integrated knowledge base and identification of domain features are clearer and more influential in guiding action. At this level, the student is less flexible in these areas than the proficient psychologist [the next level of competence] but does have a feeling of mastery and the ability to cope with and manage many contingencies of clinical work.
Practicum Competencies and Skills
(adapted by CDSPP Practicum Taskforce)
Admission to graduate programs in school psychology is based on several factors, including intellectual competence, academic background, personal attitude and values and ethical behavior. Thus, it is expected that students in graduate programs possess these basic characteristics before beginning their graduate training. Their graduate didactic and practical experiences should enable them to develop into competent professionals. Thus, the baseline competencies are included in the practicum competency outline, including pre-requisite professional skills, attitudes and knowledge and pre-requisite knowledge from classroom experience/ coursework.
A. Baseline Competencies:
1. Pre-requisite Professional Skills, Attitudes and Knowledge
Prior to beginning their first formal practicum experience graduate students in psychology and school psychology should demonstrate a set of core professional, basic personal and intellectual skills, as well as attitudes and values that represent the baseline competencies of a professional psychologist. It is the responsibility of the university faculty to determine the readiness of each student to begin their field training experiences. The work of the subsequent practicum training is to shape and refine these baseline skills into professional skills. These baseline skills include the following:
a) Personality Characteristics, Intellectual and Personal skills: The student demonstrates the ability to listen and be empathic with others; to respect others' cultures, experiences, values, points of view, goals and desires, fears, etc. These skills include verbal as well as non-verbal domains. An interpersonal skill of special relevance is the ability to be open to feedback.
b) Cognitive skills: The student demonstrates appropriate problem-solving ability, critical thinking skills, organized reasoning, intellectual curiosity and flexibility.
c) Affective skills: The student demonstrates an ability to tolerate and understand ambiguity, uncertainty, and interpersonal conflict.
d) Personality/Attitudes: The student demonstrates the ability to be empathetic to others, to have a desire to help and advocate for others, to be open to new ideas and to be honest and ethical.
e) Expressive skills: The student demonstrates the ability to appropriately communicate ideas, feelings and information in verbal, non-verbal and written forms.
f) Reflective skills: The student demonstrates the ability to examine and consider one's own motives, attitudes, behaviors and one's effect on others.
g) Personal skills: The student demonstrates a strong work ethic and motivation to learn, personal organization, punctuality and timeliness, and personal hygiene and grooming.
2) Pre-requisite Knowledge from Classroom Experience/Coursework:
The practicum experience will engage and develop skills and knowledge that have been the focus of pre-practicum coursework. Prior to practicum training, students should have basic theoretical and research knowledge related to diagnosis, assessment, and intervention; diversity; ethics; and research skills. While some coursework may occur concurrently with practicum, care must be taken to ensure that the practicum does not demand knowledge that the student does not yet possess. This may be a matter for negotiation between practicum sites and the graduate program. Early coursework should provide sufficient training in the following specific areas:
a) Assessment & Clinical Interviewing
1. The student demonstrates knowledge regarding development, resiliency and psychopathology related to the population(s) served by the practicum sites.
2. The student demonstrates knowledge of scientific, theoretical, empirical and contextual bases of psychological assessment and evaluation.
3. The student demonstrates knowledge of basic measurement concepts including test construction, validity, reliability and related assessment psychometrics.
4. The student demonstrates knowledge of theoretical models and techniques of clinical interviewing and collaboration.
5. The student demonstrates the ability to use appropriate observational techniques and environmental analysis within primary settings such as the school, home and / or community.
6. The student demonstrates the ability to engage in systematic data gathering using standardized observations and assessments, including scoring and interpretation.
7. The student demonstrates skills to identify strengths and areas of weakness, formulate diagnoses, and develop appropriate case conceptualization and treatment goals, including the on-going monitoring and evaluation of progress and outcome.
b) Intervention & Collaboration*
1. The student demonstrates knowledge of scientific, theoretical, empirical and contextual bases of a broad array of interventions and empirically supported practices.
2. The student demonstrates the ability to use basic collaboration and clinical skills such as questioning, probing, active listening, framing problems, summarization, etc.
3. The student demonstrates knowledge and be able to apply a range of universal, targeted and intensive intervention strategies for individuals, groups, and systems.
4. The student demonstrates the ability to monitor and critically evaluate treatment fidelity, progress and outcomes.
c) Ethical & Legal
1. The student demonstrates knowledge of ethical practice and decision making (i.e., APA 2002, NASP, 2010).
2. The student demonstrates knowledge of laws regulating mental health and where applicable educational practice (e.g., HIPAA, FERPA, IDEA, other federal and state laws, etc.)
3. The student demonstrates knowledge of the Standards for Ethical Testing (AERA, APA, & NCME, 1999)
d) Individual and Cultural Difference (ICD)
1. The student demonstrates knowledge and understanding of principles and research findings related to ICD as they apply to professional psychology and practice within school, home and community settings..
2. The student demonstrates an understanding of one's own situation (e.g., ethnicity, race, gender, sexual orientation, SES, physical disability, etc.) relative to the dimensions of ICD.
3. The student demonstrates a consideration of ICD issues in all aspects of their professional work in psychology (e.g., assessment, treatment, research, professional relationships, etc.).
B. Description of Skills and Competencies Developed During the Practicum Experience
By the completion of practicum, students will be expected to demonstrate an appropriate level of competency i.e., novice (N), intermediate (I), or advanced (A)
1. Skills in Forming and Maintaining Productive Relationships
The ability to form and maintain productive relationships with others is a cornerstone of professional psychology. Productive relationships are respectful, supportive, professional and ethical. These competencies are built upon fundamental personality characteristics, intellectual capacities, and personal skills (See Sections A1 & A2)
a) The student demonstrates the ability to form productive relationships with patients, clients and families, including children and adolescents at various developmental stages.
i) The student demonstrates the ability to take a respectful, helpful professional approach to patients/clients/children/families. (A)
ii) The student demonstrates the ability to form a working alliance with patients/clients/children/ families. (I)
iii) The student demonstrates the ability to communicate information in a clear, concise and helpful manner. (I)
* Specific features of "Intervention" are more fully described in Section B4 (Intervention Skills).
iv) The student demonstrates the ability to negotiate differences of opinion and cope with conflict. (I)
v) The student demonstrates the ability to understand and maintain appropriate professional boundaries. (I)
b) The student demonstrates the ability to form productive relationships with colleagues.
i) The student demonstrates the ability to work collegially with fellow professionals at the practice site (psychologists, counselors, teachers, administrators, etc.) (A)
ii) The student demonstrates the ability to respect and support others and their work and to gain support for his or her own work. (I)
iii) The student demonstrates the ability to provide helpful feedback to peers and receive such feedback nondefensively from peers. (I)
c) The student demonstrates the ability to form productive relationships with supervisors in order to make effective use of the supervisory experience.
i) The student demonstrates the ability to work collaboratively with the supervisor. (A)
ii) The student demonstrates the ability to prepare for supervision by assembling case notes, relevant data, formulating specific questions, reading appropriate literature, writing reports, etc.) (A)
iii) The student demonstrates willingness to accept supervisory input, including following directions, accepting feedback in an appropriate manner, following through on supervisor recommendations, etc. (A)
iv) The student demonstrates the ability to self-reflect and self-evaluate regarding clinical skills and the use of supervision, including using good judgment as to when supervisory input is necessary. (I)
v) The student demonstrates the ability to negotiate needs for autonomy from an dependency on supervisors (I)
d) The student demonstrates the ability to form productive relationships with support staff.
i) The student demonstrates respect for support staff through appropriate communication, etc. (A)
e) The student demonstrates the ability to work productively as a team member at the practicum site.
i) The student will familiarize him or herself with the mission and operating procedures of the practicum site. (A)
ii) The student will observe and explain on the team's operating procedures. (A)
iii) The student will participate fully in the team's work to further the mission of the practicum site. (A)
iv) The student will collaborate with team members. (I)
f) The student demonstrates the ability to develop appropriate relationships with community professionals.
g) The student demonstrates the ability to communicate in a professional manner
h) The student demonstrates the ability to work collaboratively with community professionals. (I)
2. Research Skills
Clinical/school psychology practice is based on empirical evidence, research, knowledge derived from practice, and professional judgment (see the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice, 2006; Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology).
a) The student demonstrates the development of skills and habits in seeking and understanding theoretical and research knowledge relevant to the practice of psychology in the clinical/school setting, including accessing and applying specific knowledge bases (I)
b) The student demonstrates the ability to access and apply research knowledge related to his or her practice including diagnosis/assessment, intervention, prevention, consultation, diversity, supervision, ethics, etc. in order to promote mental health and academic performance for all clients (including children and their families). (I)
c) The student demonstrates the ability to share research-based information both in oral and written form with colleagues, patients/clients in order to promote best practices. (I)
3. Psychological Assessment Skills
The ability to perform evidence-based, valid and reliable psychological assessments is a fundamental competency for psychologists. It includes the ability to integrate knowledge gained from interviews, observations, psychological testing, interventions and outcome findings.
a) The student demonstrates the ability to utilize a systematic approach to data gathering in order to inform clinical/professional decision making. (A)
b) The student demonstrates the ability to select and implement a variety of evaluation methods in ways that are responsive to and respectful of diverse individuals, couples, families and groups. (A)
c) The student demonstrates knowledge of psychometric issues and bases of assessment methods including recognition of the importance of using valid assessment tools with different populations and to make decisions. (A)
d) The student demonstrates skill in administering evaluation instruments to various populations, including specialized groups such as young children, English Language Learners, etc. (I)
e) The student demonstrates the ability to score and interpret results from individual assessment instruments. (A)
f) The student demonstrates the ability to integrate assessment data from different sources for diagnostic purposes. (A)
g) The student demonstrates the ability to select, implement, score and interpret group screening instruments (e.g., Response to Intervention). (A)
h) The student demonstrates the ability to integrate assessment results to develop appropriate academic, behavioral, and socio-emotional intervention recommendations. (I)
i) The student demonstrates an understanding of the strengths and limitations of current assessments and diagnostic approaches. (A)
j) The student demonstrates the ability to adhere to principles of assessment as defined in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (AERA, APA, & NCME, 1999) (A)
k) The student demonstrates the ability to verbally communicate assessment results to diverse audiences including other professionals, parents, children, etc. (A)
l) The student demonstrates the ability to communicate assessment results to diverse audiences in written form. (A)
m) The student demonstrates the ability to collect and use assessment results to monitor the impact of interventions on academic, social, behavioral and emotional functioning. (A)
4. Intervention Skills
Intervention includes preventive, developmental and remedial treatment approaches and is a fundamental operational competency for psychologists. Empirically supported practice is not intended to restrict the range of training to a particular domain of interventions, rather it reflects an understanding of interventions or treatment approaches that are founded upon strong theoretical and empirically supported tradition and practice.
a) The student demonstrates the ability to formulate and conceptualize cases. (I)
b) The student demonstrates knowledge of psychological intervention theory, research and practice. (I)
c) The student demonstrates knowledge of the influence of context and systems on client behavior and intervention effectiveness. (I)
d) The student demonstrates the ability to plan and implement interventions that can include psychotherapy (e.g., CBT, behavioral, etc.), psychoeducational interventions, crisis management, and other psychological/ psychiatric emergency interventions depending on the focus and scope of the practicum site. (I)
e) The student demonstrates the ability to support intervention integrity through the use of appropriate organizational and change strategies. (I)
f) The student demonstrates the ability to assess and monitor intervention progress and outcomes. (I)
g) The student demonstrates the ability to link concepts of therapeutic process and change to intervention strategies and tactics. (I)
5. Consultation/Inter-professional Collaboration Skills:
The workgroup at the 2002 Competencies Conference viewed consultation as a key competency for psychologists in the 21st century, citing the importance of psychologists being able to "serve as competent and engaged consultants who bring value to a broad range of settings, contexts and systems that can benefit from skillful application [of] psychological knowledge" (Arredondo, Shealy, Neale, & Winfrey, 2004).In particular, for psychologists working in schools, engaging with family members and developing family, school and community partnerships throughout a student's entire educational experience is a significant component of many federal and state educational mandates.
a) The student demonstrates knowledge of consultation models (e.g., expert, consultee-centered, collaborative, process, etc.) (A)
b) The student demonstrates knowledge of the unique role of other professionals and family members. (A)
c) The student demonstrates the interpersonal and communication skills necessary for effective consultation, including the ability to communicate with other professionals and family members involved in the individual's care (e.g., physicians, teachers, etc.) and avoid the use of psychological jargon. (I)
d) The student demonstrates the ability to implement a systematic approach to data collection in a consultative role. (I)
e) The student demonstrates the ability to initiate and maintain effective consultation with other professionals and family members. (I)
f) The student will be able to articulate, align and coordinate the home, school and community contexts as a means to facilitate positive outcomes for students, both behaviorally and academically. (N)
g) The student demonstrates the ability to write well-organized and succinct consultative reports which provide useful and relevant recommendations to other professionals. (I)
h) The student demonstrates an understanding of the multicultural aspects of consultation and demonstrate the ability to consult cross-culturally. (A)
6. Skills in Cultural and Linguistic Diversity:
The APA Multicultural Guidelines (APA, 2003) notes that "All individuals exist in social, political, historical, and economic contexts, and psychologists are increasingly called upon to understand the influence of these contexts on individuals' behavior" (p. 377). Thus, psychologists must overlay an appreciation, awareness of, and respect for individual and cultural differences (ICD) in all professional activities. It is critical that practicum students continue to learn how ICD influences the way that clients are perceived and the way that clients perceive the psychologist, and to acknowledge the need for culture-centered practices that recognize how individual and cultural differences influence clients' recognition or definition of a problem and appropriate solutions for that problem.
a) The student demonstrates knowledge of self in the context of diversity as one operates across environments with diverse others (i.e., knowledge of self values, attitudes, beliefs and personal strengths and limitations). (I)
b) The student demonstrates knowledge of the role culture plays across the lifespan. (I)
c) The student demonstrates knowledge of the nature and impact of diversity across home, school and community settings. (I)
d) The student demonstrates knowledge of the role of cultural and language difference in academic, behavioral, and social-emotional assessment and interventions. (I)
e) The student demonstrates the ability to work effectively with diverse individuals in assessment, treatment and consultation. (N)
f) The student demonstrates the ability to communicate effectively with culturally and linguistically diverse individuals, including children, parents, and other family, school, or community members. (I)
7. Ethical Skills:
During the practicum, the student will build on coursework in ethical practice, developing individual knowledge AND APPLICATION of ethical practice, AS OUTLINED IN the APA ethics code (APA, 2002) and NASP Standards (2010). In addition, students should increase and apply their understanding of legal standards AND MADATES AT THE STATE AND FEDERAL LEVEL. Note that each of the domains described in this document is expected as a matter of course to be grounded in ethical practice.
a) The student will recognize and adhere to ethical guidelines and legal regulations, including school specific issues. (A)
b) The student demonstrates a clear understanding of client/system issues. (I)
c) The student will recognize and analyze ethical and legal issues across the range of professional activities in the practicum setting. (I)
d) The student will recognize and understand the ethical dimensions/features of his/her own attitudes and practice in the clinical/school setting. (I)
e) The student will practice appropriate professional assertiveness related to ethical issues. (I)
f) The student will seek appropriate information and consultation when faced with ethical issues. (A)
g) The student demonstrates a commitment to ethical practice. (A)
8. Leadership Skills:
The 2001 Education Leadership Conference Practicum Competencies Workgroup identified beginning training in management and leadership skills as important. A deliberate effort to engage students in considering and practicing these skills in the practicum setting could aid in their development. For example, practicum students may gain beginning understanding and practice in leadership through leading research teams, mentoring newer students in vertical team settings, acting in a supervisory or administrative role in clinics, schools, agencies, etc participating in system-wide discussions of organizational goals and policies regarding the delivery of psychological services, clinical, training and management activities.
a) The student will recognize his or her role in creating policy, participating in system change, and management. (N)
b) The student demonstrates an understanding of the major staff and administrative roles of the organization and the relationship between roles of supervisor, manager and executive. (N)
c) The student will be able to identify the decision making processes, norms, values and culture of the practicum setting. (N)
d) The student demonstrates an understanding of the role of leadership in promoting organizational effectiveness.(N)
e) The student demonstrates an awareness of the role of social relationships and interactions in the development of social change. (N)
f) The student demonstrates an understanding of the purpose and process of collaborative strategic planning. (N)
g) The student demonstrates an understanding of the financial structure of the practicum setting as it pertains to psychological service delivery. (N)
h) The student recognizes the importance of structuring, planning and facilitating effective meetings. (N)
i) The student demonstrates an understanding of the organizational change process and how organizational structures such as staffing, stakeholder support, committees, and evaluation and feedback systems can influence the success of change efforts. (N)
j) The student demonstrates the ability to assess the fit of potential new practices and programs within an organization. (N)
k) The student demonstrates the ability to provide appropriate training and technical assistance options to organizational staff in order to facilitate the provision of new practices and programs. (N)
9. Supervisory Skills:
Supervision is widely considered to be a core competency in professional psychology (e.g., Falender and Shafranske, 2004) that is developed through fieldwork, although competent supervisory practice typically awaits mastery of the other competencies listed in this document and is most applicable during internship. However, the basic groundwork for developing supervisory competency may be addressed to some extent during practicum.
a) The student demonstrates knowledge of how psychology students develop into skilled professionals. (N)
b) The student demonstrates knowledge of the methods and issues related to the evaluation of professional work, including the delivery of formative and summative feedback. (N)
c) The student demonstrates knowledge of the ethical and legal aspects of the supervisory relationship.
d) The student demonstrates knowledge of individual and cultural differences in the supervision process. (I)
e) The student demonstrates knowledge of supervisory models, theories and research. f) The student demonstrates knowledge of the I limits of his or her supervisory skills. (I)
10. Professional Development:
Practicum training can foster the development of professional identity and practice in the student and serve as the foundation for continuing development.
a) The student demonstrates adherence to the agency/school's procedures and guidelines while adhering to professional ethics. (A)
b) The student will develop an organized and disciplined approach to time management and professional practice (systematic organization of daily activities, timely writing, maintenance of notes and records, attendance, promptness, etc.) (A)
c) The student will be organized and prepared for professional service delivery (A)
d) The student will responsibly carry out assigned duties (A)
e) The student demonstrates flexibility and adaptability to novel and unexpected situations. (I)
f) The student will utilize resources to promote effective practice and continued professional development (I)
11. Metaknowledge/Metacompetencies – Skilled Learning
Practicum training should foster the development of a professional identity and serve as the foundation for continued reflective understanding and knowledge about one's practice. Metaknowledge helps one to know what is and is not known, including being aware of one's limits, being able to judge when a task cannot be done with current knowledge, and knowing when one must acquire new or missing skills. Metacompetencies similarly refer to the ability to judge the availability, use and "learnability" of personal skills. The development of metaknowledge and metacompetencies depends on continual self-reflection and self-assessment (Weinert, 2001).
a) The student demonstrates sensitivity to the boundaries of his or her professional expertise. (I)
b) The student demonstrates an awareness of his or her personal well-being and will be able to seek resources to promote self-care and healthy functioning. (I)
c) The student demonstrates knowledge of the epistemologies underlying various aspects of psychological practice (e.g. assessment, diagnosis, treatment, consultation, prevention, etc.) (I)
d) The student demonstrates a commitment to life-long learning and quality improvement. (I)
g) The student demonstrates the ability to use supervision, consultation, and other resources to improve and extend his or her skills. (A)