Assessment Resource Sheet: Cognitive Functioning

Measures of cognitive functioning include assessment tools designed to measure: (a) general intelligence, (b) nonverbal intelligence, (c) achievement, (d) attention/executive functioning, (e) memory and learning, (f) visual-motor and motor functioning and (g) language. The list of evidence-based measures was identified by members of the Society of Pediatric Psychology and originally published in the Journal of Pediatric Psychology (Campbell et al., 2008). All cognitive functioning measures are classified as well-established assessment or approaching well-established assessment. Criteria for each of these classifications is included in Cohen et al.’s (2008) paper defining evidence-based assessment. Information on where to obtain the measure is included in parentheses after the name of each measure. Age ranges are included in parentheses. Central references are included after each table and are cited with superscripts in the tables.

Several measures are out of date and others and others have been revised recently; these circumstances are noted in the table, where appropriate. The Campbell et al. paper and supplementary materials posted on the Journal of Pediatric Psychology website should also be reviewed for detailed information about psychometric properties of the measures listed below.

General Intelligence
Assessments Well-established Approaching
Well-established
Promising
Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III)1 (ages 1 - 42 months) X    

McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities (MSCA) Out-of-date] (ages 2.5 - 8.5 yr)

X    

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition (KABC-II)3 (ages 3 - 18 yr)

X    
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB-5)4 (ages 2 - 85+ yr) X    

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III)5 [Currently in 4th Edition] (ages 16 – 90 yr)

X    
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)6 (ages 6 - 16 yr) X    
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition (WPPSI-III)7 (ages 2.5 - 7 yr, 3 mo) X    
Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III Cog)8 (ages 2 - 90+ yr) X    
Nonverbal Intelligence
Assessments Well-established Approaching
Well-established
Promising
Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS)9 (ages 3 – 9 yr) X    

Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R)10 (ages 2 - 21 yr)

X    

Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM)11 (ages 6 - adult)

X    
Academic Achievement
Assessments Well-established Approaching
Well-established
Promising
Peabody Individual Achievement Test – Revised (PIAT-R)12 (ages 5 – 22 yr) X    

Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition (WIAT-II)13 [Currently in Third Edition] (ages 4 – 50 yr)

X    
Wide Range Achievement Test - 3 (WRAT-3)14 [Currently in 4th edition] (ages 5 – 75 yr) X    

Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III Ach)15 (ages 2 - 90+ yr)

X    
Attention/Executive Functioning
Assessments Well-established Approaching
Well-established
Promising
Conners’ Continuous Performance Test II (CPT II)16 (ages 6 yr – adult)   X  

Trail Making Test17 (Older children’s version: ages 9 – 14 yr)

  X  
Memory and Learning (n-2)
Assessments Well-established Approaching
Well-established
Promising
California Verbal Learning Test Children’s Version (CVLT-C)18 (ages 5 – 16 yr) X    

Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML)19 [Now in 2nd edition] (ages 5 – 90 yr)

X    
Visual-Motor/Motor Functioning
Assessments Well-established Approaching
Well-established
Promising
Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, 5th Edition (VMI)20 [Now in 6th edition] (ages 2 – 18 yr) X    

Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test Second Edition (Bender-II)21 (ages 4 – 85+ yr)

X    
Halstead-Reitan Grip Strength Test (HGST)22 (ages 5 yr – adult)   X  
Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF)23 (ages 5 – 14 yr) X    
Halstead-Reitan Finger Tapping Test (HFTT)24 (ages 5 yr – adult)   X  
Lafayette Grooved Pegboard Task (GPT)25 (ages 6 yr - adult)   X  
Language
Assessments Well-established Approaching
Well-established
Promising
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test – Third Edition(PPVT-III)26 [Currently in 4th edition] (ages 2.5 – 90+ yr) X    
Comprehensive Neuropsychological Battery
Assessments Well-established Approaching
Well-established
Promising
A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY)27 [Currently in 2nd edition] (ages 3 – 16 yr) X    
1. Bayley, N. (2006). Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Technical Manual (3rd ed.).  San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.
2. McCarthy, D. (1972). McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities.  New York:  The Psychological Corporation.
3. Kaufman, A.S. & Kaufman, N.L. (2004). Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Manual (2nd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: AGS.
4. Roid, G.H. (2003). Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (5th ed.).  Itasca, IL:  Riverside Publishing.
5. Wechsler, D. (1997). Administration and scoring manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.). San Antonio:  The Psychological Corporation. 
6. Wechsler, D. (2003). Administration and scoring manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (4th ed.). San Antonio:  The Psychological Corporation.
7. Wechsler, D (2002).  Manual for the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-III; (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
8. McGrew, K. S. & Woodcock, R. W. (2001).  Technical Manual:  Woodcock-Johnson III.  Itasca, IL:  Riverside Publishing. 
9. Burgemeister, B. B, Hollander, L. H., & Lorge, I. (1972). Columbia Mental Maturity Scale: Guide for administering and interpreting.  US: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.
10. Roid, G. H., & Miller, L. J. (1995, 1997). Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised. Wood Dale, IL: Stoelting Co.
11. Raven, J., Raven, J. C., & Court, J. H. (1998). Raven manual: Section 1. General overview. Oxford: Oxford Psychologists Press Ltd.
12. Markwardt, F. C. (1998). Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised Normative Update.  Circle Pines, MN:  American Guidance Service.
13. Wechsler, D. (2002). Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition. Examiner’s manual. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.
14. Wilkinson, G.S. (1993). The Wide Range Achievement Test:  Administration Manual. Wilmington, Delaware:  Wide Range, Inc. 
15. McGrew, K.S., & Woodcock, R.W. (2001). Technical Manual.  Woodcock-Johnson III. Itasca, IL:  Riverside Publishing.
16. Conners, C.K. & MHS Staff (2000). Conners’ Continuous Performance Test II Computer Program for Windows Technical Guide and Software Manual.  Toronto, ON:  Multi-Health Systems, Inc.
17. Reitan, R.M., & Wolfson, D. (1993). The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery:  Theory and clinical interpretation (2nd ed.). Tucson, AZ: Neuropsychology Press.
18. Delis, D., Kramer, J. H., Kaplan, E., & Ober, B. A. (1994). California Verbal Learning Test. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
19. Sheslow, D., & Adams, W. (1990). Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning. Wilmington, DE: Jastak.
20. Beery, K.E. & Beery, N.A. (2004). The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (5th Edition) Administration, Scoring, and Teaching Manual. Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson, Inc.
21. Brannigan, G.G., & Decker, S.L. (2003). Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (2nd ed.). Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.
22. Reitan, R.M. & Wolfson, D. (1993). The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery: Theory and clinical interpretation (2nd ed). Tucson, AZ: Neuropsychological Press.
23. Bernstein, J.H., & Waber, D.P. (1996). Developmental Scoring System for the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure. Professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
24. Reitan, R.M. & Wolfson, D. (1993). The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery: Theory and clinical interpretation (2nd ed). Tucson, AZ: Neuropsychological Press.
25.  Trites, R.L. (1989). Lafayette Grooved Pegboard Task. Instruction/Owner’s Manual. Lafayette, IN: Lafayette Instrument Company.
26. Dunn, L.M., & Dunn, L.M. (1997). Examiner’s manual for the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (3rd ed.). Circle Pines, MN:  American Guidance Service.
27. Korkman, M., Kirk, U., & Kemp. S. (1998). NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.